Every year, between June 1 and November 30 (period called hurricane season ), the hurricanes threaten the Gulf and east of the United States, Mexico, Central America and Caribbean coasts. In other parts of the world, the same types of storms are called typhoons or cyclones . Hurricanes spread destruction When They reach the earth and can kill Thousands of people, besides causing a loss of billions When They hit populated areas.
In this article, we discuss how hurricanes form and move and see the destruction and the damage They cause. Also we will examine how meteorologists track hurricanes.
According to the National Hurricane Center of the United States, "Hurricane" is the name for a tropical cyclone that Occurs in the Atlantic Ocean. "Tropical cyclone" is the generic term used for low pressure systems that develop in the tropics.
"Tropical cyclones with maximum surface winds of less than 17 meters per second (62.7 km / h) are called tropical depressions . Reaches Once the tropical cyclone winds of 17 m / s, it is called a tropical storm and Receives the name (in English ). If winds reach 33 m / s (119 km / h), then it is called "Hurricane".
Source: Observatory of NASA
According to the National Hurricane Center of the United States, the word "hurricane" (English name for hurricane, inherited from the Spanish "huracán") comes from "Hurican" the Caribbean god of evil
Hurricanes are defined by the Following characteristics:
How is a hurricane
Hurricanes form in tropical regions where there is warm water (at least 27 ° C), atmospheric moisture and converging equatorial winds. Most Atlantic hurricane begins along the western coast of Africa, starting the violent storms that moves over the warm waters of the tropical ocean. The storm Reaches hurricane status in three stages:
It may take a few hours to several days for an intense storm pass the hurricane. Although the process of formation of tornado not entirely Understood, It Is Necessary Occur that three events for hurricanes to form:
The warm and humid air from the ocean surface begins to rise rapidly. The warm air rises this, its water vapor condenses to form storm clouds and raindrops. The condensation releases heat called latent heat of condensation . This latent heat heats the cold air at high, causing it to rise. This rising air is Replaced by more warm, moist air from the ocean below. This cycle continues, dragging more warm, moist air into the storm that develops and continuously moving heat from the surface to the atmosphere. This heat transfer from the surface of the wind Creates a pattern that circulates around the center. This circulation is similar to that of water seeping by the drain.
Converging winds are winds that move in different directions. The converging winds at the surface collide and push the hot and humid air up. This rising air intensifies the air that is already rising from the surface, so that the circulation and wind speeds of the storm increases. Meanwhile, the strong winds that blow in uniform speeds at higher altitudes (up to 9000 meters) help remove the hot air rising from the storm, Which holds the continuous movement of hot air from the surface center and the storm Maintains structured. If the winds of high altitude does not blow at the same speed at all levels (if any wind shear ), the storm will lose its structure and weaken.
The high-pressure air in the upper atmosphere (above 9000 meters) above the center of the storm Also removes heat from rising air, further Top Top intensifying the air cycle and the growth of the hurricane. As the high pressure air is sucked into the low pressure center of the storm wind speed increases.
Parts of a Hurricane
Once the hurricane forms, it has three main parts:
Source: Observatory of NASA
To know the anatomy and birth of a hurricane, see Hurricane Creation - creating a hurricane (in English). In addition, you can create a hurricane (in English) and experiment with the various factors that Affect the formation of a hurricane.